Certified Senior Ecologist
Dr. Richard Podolsky is a Certified Senior Ecologist with 30 years of experience in assisting land developers and oil, gas, electric generation and telecommunication companies reduce potentially adverse environmental effects of a wide range of projects and achieve regulatory compliance. He has excellent strategic skills in competing for bids, expediting permits, and avoiding costly environmental litigation and expertise in researching and successfully applying cost-effective, state-of-the-art environmental techniques, materials and software to new development and mitigation projects. He is a strong team leader and communicator with substantial staff and fiscal management skills and is experienced at proactively addressing the environmental concerns of nonprofit organizations and community groups, and troubleshooting with governmental officials to achieve regulatory compliance. Dr. Podolsky is an international authority on the impact of the built environment on wildlife and ecological processes.
Nationally, Dr. Podolsky provides corporate and non-profit clients with all aspects of environmental compliance including but not limited to environmental conservation, natural resource assessments, ecological/environmental restoration, site assessment/site investigations (SA/SI), habitat evaluations, resource conservation and recovery. He is well versed in laws and regulations such as the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and Endangered Species Act (ESA), particularly Section 7 Consultations pertaining to ESA. Dr. Podolsky has provided permitting support and ecological assessments at over 70 wind power projects, 35 telecommunication towers and for the 4 towers that replaced the Twin Towers in Lower Manhattan. Dr. Podolsky has conducted numerous collision risk modeling studies using Avian Risk of Collision (ARC) Model for which Podolsky was awarded US Patent #7,315,799.
Internationally, Dr. Podolsky has provided scientific expertise to the UN, the World Bank and numerous NGOs and private corporations. He is familiar with Performance Standards 1,3,5 and 6 used by the International Finance Corporation (IFC) of the World Bank – especially Performance Standard 6 (Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Management of Living Natural Resources). Dr. Podolsky is also familiar with the Biodiversity Enabling Activities (BDEA) and specifically in the development of National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAP) and all related requirements under the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD) including the Aichi Biodiversity Targets (#17 and others) that were agreed upon during the COP10 in Nagoya, Japan in 2010.
Ph.D., Ecology, Fisheries and Wildlife, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI
Dissertation: Colony Formation and Attraction of Laysan Albatross and Leachs Storm Petrel.
M.S., Ecology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ
Thesis: Reproductive Performance as a Function of Location within a Herring Gull Colony.
B.A., Biology with Distinction, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI
Thesis: Physiological Adaptations to Desert Environments.
POST DOCTORAL RESEARCH AND EDUCATION
- Charles Darwin Scientific Station, Galápagos Islands, Ecuado Four years of research and management of critically endangered Galápagos Petrel.
- Stanford University, Center for Conservation Biology. Courses in Managing for Viable Meta-populations with Dr. Paul Ehrlich and Dr. Bruce Wilcox.
CEO and Certified Senior Ecologist, Ecology And Technology, Rockport, Maine
- Senior Managing Scientist, Exponent, 2011-2013
- Principal Ecologist, URS Corp., 2009-2011
- Senior Ecologist, The Louis Berger Group, 2006-2011
- Senior Scientist, Perot Systems, 2002-2006
- CEO, Avian Systems, 1991-2002
- Science and Research Director, Island Institute, 1985-1991
- Academic Director, Hurricane Island Outward Bound School, 1983-1985
BOARD POSITIONS, MEMBERSHIPS AND PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES
Executive Board of Directors (Legal Representative) New England Chapter of the Society of Conservation Biology, National Wind Coordinating Committee (Wildlife and Siting Committee), The Ecological Society of America, The American Ornithological Union, The Organization of Biological Field Stations and Hurricane Island Foundation.
- Keystone XL Pipeline. Project Manager of a team of 15 scientists in a third-party, independent review of the EIS drafted for the Keystone XL Pipeline. In addition to managing the overall task, Podolsky was directly responsible for the review of all threatened and endangered species impacts of the project.
- Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill. Provided peer review of all avian, dolphin and sea turtle studies conducted during and after the Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico and led the development of a causal analysis of the impact of commercial and recreational fisheries closures as a result of the spill upon colonial waterbird breeding – specifically to see if closure lead to more prey availability and thereby an increase in bird foraging.
- National Ecological Observatory Network (NEONINC.ORG) US Geological Survey and National Science Foundation (NSF). NEON comprises a network of 20 bioregions in the US where baseline environmental and ecological data is being collected to enable forecasting impacts due to global climate change. Podolsky is providing review and design recommendations regarding the sampling of birds at NEON sampling site.
- Mountain Top Removal/Valley Fill. Project leader and manager on a project where 5 study streams below valley fills are being compared to 3 reference streams not below valley fills with special attention to birds, bats, herpetofauna and fish.
- Siemens – Field Validation of Siemens’ Bird and Bat Dissuasion System. Podolsky designed and led a field verification protocol for a system to keep birds and bats out of wind turbine blades where in the system was tested against over 80,000 birds and bats at four locations in North America.
- Avian Risk Assessment Associated with Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Everglades and Biscayne National Park. Designed and led an avian risk assessment for 4 alternative transmission line corridors in or near the Everglades of Florida associated with the planned for expansion of Turkey Point Nuclear Plant.
- Amaila Falls Hydro Project, Guyana. Podolsky provided technical review of impact assessment for the project with special attention to birds and bats and conducted site-inspections of the access road and authored the Environmental and Social Management Plan focused on methods for minimizing barriers to wildlife movement along the road alignment.
- US Fish and Wildlife Service: Principal Investigator on Risk Assessment of Marbled Murrelet and Wind Power Project Proposed for Radar Ridge Washington. Podolsky co-lead a team of 5 senior scientists in the detailed review of the avian field studies and collision risk assessment for the proposed wind power project at Radar Ridge, WA.
- Bureau of Ocean Energy Management. Scientific Reviewer under Master Services Agreement M08PC20060, entitled, “Potential for Interactions Between Endangered and Candidate Bird Species with Wind Facility Operations on the Atlantic Outer Continental She” As scientific reviewer, Podolsky provided technical comments to research design and to all project draft and final reports.
- Federal Communication Commission (FCC) – Senior Avian Technical Lead on FCC Programmatic Environmental Assessmen Podolsky is the lead ornithologist providing technical support to the FCC enabling the commission to comply with its obligations under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) regarding its Antenna Structure Registration (ASR) program.
- Earth Justice, Honolulu, Hawaii – Provided endangered species consultation regarding two legal actions regarding illegal take of Newells Shearwater and Hawaiian Petrels on Kaua`i Island and conducted field assessments of power line arrays and artificial light
- Maine Community Wind – Principle Ecologist. Podolsky has led the study of birds and bats at the Fox Island Wind Power Project on Vinalhaven, Monhegan Island, and Swans Island. These projects entail monthly biological surveys and bird and bat risk assessments. On the Fox Islands, Podolsky is also supporting the application for an Incidental Take Permit for Bald Eagle
- National Park Service, Cape Hatteras National Seashore Recreation Management, North Carolin As Senior Ornithologist, Dr. Podolsky is the primary Avian Analyst for the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) environmental assessment (EA) and environmental impact statement (EIS) review of all proposed actions associated with the management of recreation at Cape Hatteras National Seashore including but not limited to scientific review of existing literature and annual reports by National Park Service (NPS) biologist.
- National Park Service, Cape Lookout National Seashore, North Carolina. As Senior Ornithologist, Dr. Podolsky is the primary technical avian analyst on the NEPA EA and EIS review of all proposed actions resulting from the management of recreation at Cape Lookout National Seashore including but not limited to scientific review of existing literature and annual reports by NPS biologist.
- Boreal Renewable Energy – Senior Ornithologist. Podolsky has supported Boreal at over 12 wind power projects in New England by conducting avian surveys and preparing “fatal flaw” reports for proposed wind power sites these include wind power sites at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, Aquaculture Research Institute and at other locations in the Cape and Islands and the Berkshire Mountains of Massachusetts.
- Patriot Renewables, LLC, – Senior Ecologist. Podolsky conducted 12 months of at-sea bird surveys in support of a 100MW offshore wind power project proposed by Patriot for Buzzards Bay, MA. This project included a collision risk assessment of the federally endangered Roseate Tern.
- Silverstein Properties, Skidmore, Owings + Merrill Architects. Providing site-specific recommendations to reduce the risk of collision of migratory and resident birds at the World Trade Center Freedom Tower, the building that is replacing the Twin Towers that were destroyed on September 11, 2001. This consultation includes a review of Freedom Tower façade reflectivity, artificial lighting and the use of exterior plantings with the goal of minimizing the factors known to contribute to the risk of bird death by collision.
- The Nature Conservancy. Utilized Diversidad software developed by Podolsky that scans earth images and identifies biodiversity hot spots in wilderness landscapes to prioritize lands for future acquisition and conservation. Also applied customized software, which utilizes satellite imagery as a cost-effective alternative to traditional surveying methods.
- Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Restoration Team. Analyzed satellite imagery of over one million acres impacted by the spill to identify and quantify the habitats of species most impacted by the spill; trained and led an expedition to ground-truth the satellite imagery of Prince William Sound; presented results of the GIS analysis and mapping to the land acquisition team to guide their purchase and subsequent protection of critical coastal habitat to restore displaced species.
NON-PROFIT ACTIVITIES AND POSITIONS
- The Island Institute, Rockland, Maine. As Director of Research, Dr. Podolsky managed the scientific activities of the Institute. He also established a digital archive and led an Apple computer-funded project to build custom in-house geographical information system (GIS) software, GAIA. He generated ecological consulting revenues for the Institute and contributed to the development and editing of Cape Cod to the Bay of Fundy: Environmental Atlas of the Gulf of Maine (MIT Press, 1996).
- Hurricane Island Outward Bound School, Maine. Dr. Podolsky provided academic oversight to the school’s college semester program and other accredited educational programs, including curriculum development, hiring and management of faculty, and oversight of all educational and field logistics for highly mobile courses.
- The National Audubon Society, Maine, Hawaii, the Galápagos Islands, Central and South America, and Antarctica. Dr. Podolsky participated as a Research Scientist and Consulting Ornithologist on the Project Puffin Team, which successfully used social attraction techniques to restore puffin and other seabird populations to the Maine Coast. He led numerous ecological research/restoration teams in Maine, Hawaii, and the Galápagos Islands. He also taught ornithology and led eco-tours to Hawaii, Central and South America, Antarctica, and the Galápagos Islands.
- United Nations Global Environment Facility (GEF). Participated on several teams that conducted on-site evaluations of conservation training, natural resource management, sustainable use of biodiversity resources, and GIS capacity in indigenous lands, to assess UN’s $9 million investment in sustainable forestry/biodiversity in several Amazon Basin countries. Also analyzed government and non-governmental organization (NGO) projects and GIS capacity regarding sustainable forestry and biodiversity in Bolivia. Podolsky tested/and or reviewed 100 over software systems and authored UN report, Software Tools for the Visualization and Management of Biodiversity Data.
- Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Led several scientific teams that helped electric power companies in California and Hawaii implement court-ordered mitigation that resulted from Endangered Species Act litigation over the adverse impact of power lines and related structures on protected bird populations. Conducted detailed image analysis of habitat in proximity to the nesting birds to better understand habitat selection and criteria for restoration. Established a long-term breeding success study in Hawaii. Led an interdisciplinary team of scientists and economists charged with quantifying the ecosystem assets of Allegheny Power’s vast wetland holdings in West Virginia.
UNIVERSITY COURSES INSTRUCTED
Community Ecology (Bard College), Ecology (Rutgers University, University of Michigan), Ornithology (Rutgers University, National Audubon Society), Science and Imaging (Apple Computer & Eastman Kodak), Field Methods in Ecology (College of the Atlantic, Stockton College), Organisms and Evolution (Stockton College), Conservation and Natural Resource Ecology (University of Michigan), Ecology of Marine Birds and Mammals (Wayne State University), Oceanography (University of Michigan, University of Hawaii), Animal Behavior and Communication (Stockton College).
HONORS AND APPOINTMENTS
- Visiting Scientist – Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology.
- Visiting Scientist – Point Reyes Bird Observatory.
- Visiting Scientist – Bigelow Laboratory of Ocean Science.
- Visiting Scientist – Charles Darwin Research Station.
- Most Innovative GIS Project—The National Park Service.
- Computerworld Smithsonian Award Finalist, Computerworld/Smithsonian.
- Outstanding Wildlife Ecology Student, The University of Michigan Faculty.
- Rackham Doctoral Fellow, The University of Michigan Graduate School.
- Frank M. Chapman Ornithology Award, American Museum of Natural History.
- Alexander Bergstrom Ornithology Award, Northeast Bird-banders Association.
- Graduation with Distinction, The University of Wisconsin.
- Podolsky RH. Fish and Wildlife Service lists Lesser Prairie-Chicken as Threatened Species. North American Wind Power Magazine. June 2014.
- Podolsky RH. Feds Step Up Avian Enforcement: Will You Be Ready? North American Wind Power Magazine. April 2014.
- Podolsky RH. Birds at Landfills: A Risk to Both Birds and Humans. American Bar Association Newsletter. June 2012.
- Podolsky RH. Emerging Methods To Keep Bats Out Of Wind Farms. North American Wind Power Magazine. May 2012.
- Podolsky RH. Marrying Wind Power and Desalinization. North American Wind Power Magazine. May 2008.
- Podolsky RH. Sustainable Slope – Wind Power- Ski Areas Begin to Embrace the Wind. North American Wind Power Magazine. June 2006.
- Podolsky RH. Take back the night. Ecology 2006; 87(12): 3223–3224.
- Podolsky RH. Industrial Ecology and the Manufacturing of Electricity from Wind. North American Wind Power Magazine. August 2005.
- Podolsky RH. Are Bats the New Birds? North American Wind Power Magazine. April 2005.
- Podolsky RH. Offshore Wind is Coming on Strong. North American Wind Power Magazine. January 2005.
- Podolsky RH. Wind power shifts into high gear. Perspectives. The quarterly publication of the New England Society for Conservation Biology, November 2004.
- Podolsky R. Application of risk assessment tools: Avian risk of collision model. Proceedings, Onshore Wildlife Interactions with Wind Developments: Research Meeting V. S. Savitt Schwartz (ed). Prepared for the Wildlife Subcommittee of the National Wind Coordinating Committee. Prepared by RESOLVE, Inc., Washington DC, pp. 86–87, Lansdowne, VA, November 3–4, 2004.
- Podolsky RH. Birds as Wind Park ‘Show Stoppers’ North American Wind Power Magazine. August 2004.
- Ainley DG, Podolsky R, Deforest L, Spencer G, Nur N. The ecology of Newell’s Shearwater and dark-rumped petrel on the island of Kaua`i. Final Report. Task 2, Seabird Ecology Study. Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA, 1995.
- Podolsky R, Ainley DG, Deforest L, Spencer G. Mortality of Newell’s Shearwaters caused by collisions with urban structures on Kaua`i. Colonial Waterbirds 1998; 21(1):20–34.
- Ainley DG, Podolsky R, Deforest L, Spencer G. New insights into the status of the Hawaiian Petrel on Kaua`i. Colonial Waterbirds 1997; 20:1–7.
- Podolsky R. Biodiversity prospecting from digital earth imagery. Diversity 1995; 11(4)16–17.
- Podolsky R. Ecological hot spots: A method for estimating biodiversity directly from digital earth imagery. Earth Observation Magazine 1994 June: pp. 30–36.
- Podolsky R. Quantification of habitats in Prince William Sound from Landsat TM satellite imagery. In: Proceedings of the Alaska University, Fairbanks, et al Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Symposium, Abstract p. 147, Anchorage, AK, February 1993.
- Podolsky R, Conkling P. Satellite imagery aids analysis of rare coastal ecosystems. GEOInfo Systems, June 1992.
- Podolsky R. Remote sensing, geographic data and the conservation of biological resources. Endangered Species Update 1992; 9(12):1–4.
- Podolsky R, Freilich J, Knehr R. Predicting plant species richness from remotely sensed data in a high desert ecosystem. 1992 ISPRS/ASPRS Global Change Conference Proceedings, Washington, DC.
- Kress SW, Nettleship D, Podolsky RH. Reintroductions of Atlantic puffins, terns, and Leach’s storm petrels at former breeding sites in the Gulf of Maine. Bell BD, Kromdeur J (ed). In: Management Methods for Populations of Threatened Birds International Council for Bird Preservation Technical Publication, Cambridge, England, UK, 1992.
- Podolsky R, Kress SW. Attraction of the endangered dark-rumped petrel to recorded vocalizations in the Galápagos Islands. The Condor 1992; 94:448–453.
- Podolsky RH. Effectiveness of social stimuli in attracting Laysan albatross to new potential nesting sites. The Auk 1990; 107(1):119–125.
- Podolsky RH, Morehouse BC. Analyzing and managing digital earth imagery: An ecological perspective. Scientific Computing & Automation 1990 Jan; pp. 19–26.
- Podolsky RH. Monitoring biodiversity and landscape richness through digital earth imagery. In: Global and Environmental Monitoring: Techniques and Impacts. International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Commission VII Symposium, Vancouver, BC, 1990.
- Podolsky RH, Morehouse BC, Greene R. Geographic information and analysis of digital earth imagery on the Macintosh II. In: Advances in Spatial Information Extraction and Analysis for Remote Sensing, Orono, ME, 1990.
- Podolsky RH, Kress SW. Factors affecting colony formation in Leach’s storm petrel to uncolonized islands in Maine. The Auk 1989; 106:332–336.
- Podolsky RH. The Status of the razorbill in the Gulf of Maine. American Birds 1989; 43:14–16.
- Podolsky RH, Kress SW. Plastic debris incorporated into cormorant nest in the Gulf of Maine. Journal of Field Ornithology 1989; 60:248–250.
- Podolsky RH. Entrapment of sea-deposited plastic debris on the shore of a Gulf of Maine island. Marine Environmental Research 1989; 27:67–72.
- Kosinski RJ, Podolsky RH. An analysis of breeding and mortality in a maturing kittiwake colony. The Auk 1979; 96:537–543.
HIGH TECH ACHIEVEMENTS
Principle designer and project leader on the development of scientific software titles for Windows and Macintosh OS including Avian Risk of Collision (ARC) Model (U.S. Patent #7315799), FullPixelSearch, GAIA, Diversidad, Similariidad, and FireTower. In-depth experience with the application of computers to scientific problems, specifically with GIS integration, pattern recognition, data mining and remote sensing.
Inventor: US Patent #7,315,799: Method of and Article of Manufacture for Determining Probability of Avian Collision. Date of Patent: January 2008.
- Webinar: Endangered Species: Regulatory Update, Emerging Scientific Tools, Species, and Case Studies.
- Webinar: Environmental Impacts of Alternate Energy Technologies: Fatal Flaws and Why Some Projects Fail.
- Skidmore, Owings + Merrill, LLP. Reducing Risk of Bird Collision: Freedom Tower.
- National Wind Coordinating Committee. Bird and Bat Collision Modeling.
- Society for Conservation Biology. Biodiversity Prospecting Tools. New York, NY
- EnergyOcean 2004. Offshore Wind Power Production. Palm Beach, FL
- International Seabird Symposium. Status of Seabird Restoration Efforts. Scotland, UK
- Environment Canada. Avian and Bat Collision Modeling for Wind Power. NB, Canada
- Massachusetts Technology Collaborative. Avian Issues and Wind Power. Boston
- European Wind Energy Conference, Madrid Spain. Wind Power and Birds and Bats
- Tuft University School of Veterinary Medicine. Seabird Restoration
- UCLA Institute of the Environment. Los Angeles, CA
- Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. Palisade, NY
- Institute for Ecosystems Studies. Millbrook, NY
- Second International Conference on Petrels and Albatross. Honolulu, HI
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. New York, NY
- Port Authority of NY and NJ. New York, NY
- General Electric Corporation. Schenectady, NY
- Rockefeller University. New York, NY
- Cooper Ornithological Society. Hilo, HI
- New York Botanical Gardens. Bronx, NY
- SPOT Image Corporation. Reston, VA
- Apple Computer, Inc. Cupertino, CA
- NASA Ames Research. Moffitt Field, CA
- Stanford University. Palo Alto, CA
- United States Secret Service. Washington, DC
- Hawaii Audubon Society. Honolulu, HI
- Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Cambridge, MA
- William McDonough + Partners. New York, NY
- Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Symposium. Anchorage, AK
- Pacific Seabird Group. Seattle, WA
- Monteverde Conservation League. Monteverde, Costa Rica.
- The RAND Corporation. Santa Monica, CA
- NASA Headquarters. Washington, DC
- Apple Computer, Inc. Worldwide Developers Conference, San Jose, CA
- The Woods Hole Research Station. Woods Hole, MA
- Yale University. New Haven, CT
- Computer Visualization and Imaging in Research. U. of Iowa.
- Environmental Grantmakers Conference. San Francisco, CA
- Distinguished Lecturer, University of Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI
GOVERNMENT AND INDUSTRY RESEARCH AWARDS
- US EPA Region 2. Industrial Ecology/Pollution Prevention in the NY Harbor.
- Port Authority of NY and NJ. Industrial Ecology/Pollution Prevention in NY Harbor.
- General Electric Aircraft Engines. Automated Analysis of Scanning Electron Micrographs.
- Electric Power Research Institute. Bi-directional Mapping for Conservati
- Hawaii Biodiversity Joint Venture. Attracting Laysan Albatross to Oahu.
- Electric Power Research Institute. Light Pollution and Endangered Seabirds of Kaua`i.
- Arthur K. Watson Foundation. The Gulf of Maine Environmental Atlas.
- Charles Darwin Research Station. Restoration of the Endangered Galápagos Petrel.
- Island Foundation, Inc. Computer Mapping for Natural Resource Analysis.
- Apple Computer, Inc. Research and Development Grant.
- EARTHWATCH/Center for Field Research. Falcon Migration on Maine island
- EARTHWATCH/Center for Field Research. Laysan Albatross Ecology on Kaua`i, Hawaii.
- American Museum of Natural History. Chapman Fund. Colony Formation in Storm Petrels.
- Author Perfect Pirates in book titled Gulls Ravens and a Vulture. The Ornithological Paintings of James Wyeth.
- Author and editor of award winning; 1995. From Cape Cod to the Bay of Fundy: An Environmental Atlas of the Gulf of Maine, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. The Atlas synthesizes landuse in the Gulf of Maine.
OTHER PUBLICATIONS AND PROCEEDINGS
- Antarctica: Discovery and Exploration. Grand Circle Travel. 29 pp.
- Portugal: By Land and Sea. Grand Circle Travel. 24
- The Kingdom of Spain. Grand Circle Travel. 29
- Turkey: A Rich and Ancient Tapestry. Grand Circle Travel. 31
- Alaska: Land of the Midnight Sun. Grand Circle Travel. 33
- Costa Rica: Where Diversity Reigns. Grand Circle Travel. 30
- This Year in Space. SciTech Quarterly.
- Satellite Imagery Aids Analysis of Rare Coastal Ecosystems. GEOInfo Systems.
- Optical Storage Medium and the Preservation of the Rainforest. SciTech Quarterly.
- Lost Island Birds. Island Journal.
- Mind over Macintosh. SciTech Quarterly.
- Satellite Search Aids Wetlands Visualization. GIS World Magazine.
- Maine’s Rarest Seabird. Maine Boats and Harbors.
- The Thin Edge. Island Journal.
- Pleistocene Islands: The Rise and Fall of Maine’s Island Empire. EARTHWATCH Magazine.
- This Island Earth. New Alchemist Quarterly.
- Island Extinction: The Saga of the Great Auk and Sea Mink. Island Journal.
- The Razors Edge: Maine’s Rarest Seabird. Island Journal.
- Night Birds: Storm Petrels on the Maine Coast. Island Journal.
Master Bird Banding Permit: # 21,768. Certified Scuba Diver. Foreign Language: Spanish. Certification: Senior Ecologist, Ecological Society of America (ESA) through 2018.